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USGS Science Resources for Undergraduate Education

This Web site contains selected USGS educational resources that may be useful to educators at the college level. Most of the material on USGS Web sites is suitable for undergraduate-level use, but we have tried to list especially appropriate sites below. Many of these resources can be used directly in the classroom, in the preparation of demonstrations, or as resources for student research. Note that this is only a partial list of selected resources.

Find more information by searching the USGS Web site, the USGS Library Web site and the USGS Publications Warehouse.

Resource Symbols:

lesson plans - Contains complete teaching module
classroom activities - Contains structured classroom activities

WWW resources - Digital data or images
cost items - Some items must be purchased

Biology


USGS Invasive Species Program
USGS research on invasive species includes all significant groups of invasive organisms in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
USGS Contaminant Biology Program
The USGS Contaminant Biology Program investigates the effects and exposure of environmental contaminants (such as mercury) to the Nation's living resources, particularly those under the stewardship of the Department of the Interior.
Status and Trends of Biological Resources
Supports the collection and analysis of biological data for use by natural resource managers, scientists, and the general public. This site examines: what they are, where they are located, how many there are, their capacity to produce, their health, and how these trends change over time and space. This very extensive site includes a publication list and recent news items.
USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Resource site for materials related to wildlife and ecosystem health. The Center monitors disease and assesses the impact of disease on wildlife populations, defines ecological relationships leading to the occurrence of disease, transfers technology for disease prevention and control, and provides guidance for reducing wildlife losses when outbreaks occur. This site includes links to hot topics in wildlife health and recent news articles.
Avian Zoonotic Diseases: Work Smart, Stay Safe
A 90-minute online seminar that covers basic disease concepts, common routes of disease exposure, and biosafety recommendations. Avian zoonotic diseases discussed are salmonellosis, chlamydiosis, histoplasmosis, West Nile virus, Newcastle Disease, and avian influenza. Watch the course and download the materials.
Mammalian Zoonotic Diseases: Work Smart, Stay Safe
A 90-minute online seminar that covers basic disease concepts, common routes of disease exposure and biosafety recommendations. Mammalian zoonotic diseases discussed are rabies, plague, baylisascaris, tularemia, Hantavirus, Lyme disease, giardia, and echinococcus. Watch the course and download the materials.
Genetics and Genomics
As our environment changes, urgent answers to questions at the gene and genome levels are needed. USGS geneticists work to provide answers to questions of genetics for use in making sound management decisions on fish and wildlife, including their habitat and conservation.
Birds of North America Taxonomic List
A table listing birds of North America. The table is sorted taxonomically (by order, family, and genus).
Bird Banding Laboratory of the North American Bird Banding Program
Information on bird banding and bird markers.
Become a Phenology Observer
The National Phenology Network (sponsored by the USGS) is looking for volunteers to help monitor plant and animal species found across the United States. Learn how to monitor plant and animal phenology and sign up to contribute new observations to the national phenology database.
Whooping Cranes
The USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has been breeding whooping cranes for release to the wild since 1967. This site has extensive information and Frequently Asked Questions about whooping cranes plus videos and a list of recent articles. Be sure to click on the site map to see fascinating photos and information about raising individual chicks. An additional 16-minute video discusses health, exercise, diet, and training of these birds that were once on the brink of extinction.
Interactive Human Wildlife Disease Maps
Dengue Fever reports have been added to the USGS Disease Maps Web site. Provide public assistance in wildlife disease surveillance through a new experimental Web site for reporting wildlife mortality events.
Microbiology Research
The USGS Interdisciplinary Microbiology Web site is your gateway to information about the role of microbes in fish and wildlife disease, human health, bioremediation, energy resources, ecosystem function, climate change, and water quality. This site includes an image gallery of bacteria and microbes.
Disease Emergence and Resurgence: The Wildlife-Human Connection
This online publication focuses on disease emergence in wildlife, the importance of wild animals as sentinels for disease emergence, and critical issues regarding wildlife as sources for diseases that are transmittable to humans.

Amphibians
USGS Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI)
ARMI is a Congressionally-mandated national program of amphibian monitoring, research, and conservation. Links to regional Web sites, a searchable publication list, and copyright-free photos are included.   Icon for classroom activities  Icon for lab resources
Amphibian Malformations and Decline: USGS National Wildlife Health Center
This site has limited information, but provides quick links to a Field Guide to Malformations of Frogs and Toads plus a 1997 report on Diagnostic Findings Associated with Malformed Frogs in Vermont.
Checklist of North American Amphibian Species and Identification Guide
Only covers North America north of Mexico. Lists are organized by family or by species. About 25% of the listed salamanders and 50% of the frogs and toads have their own page with a photo, description, and a map of their range.

Climate Change
USGS Office of Global Change
Extensive list of links to information on USGS climate change activities, publications, news, FAQs, Podcasts, and more.
Online Lectures about Climate Change
Over a dozen on-line lectures related to climate change. Most are targeted to the general public and all are suitable for a college-level audience.
Ecosystems Global Change Research
Focuses on the impacts of global change on Department of Interior lands and resources.
Gas Hydrates and Climate Warming
A brief primer on methane hydrates and the relationship between gas hydrates and climate change. Also watch a 7 minute video about gas hydrates.
USA National Phenology Network
A partnership that brings together citizen scientists, government agencies, non-profit groups, educators, and students of all ages to monitor the impacts of climate change on plants and animals in the United States. The Web site provides training and resource materials plus opportunities to contribute as an individual or group.
Climate Connections: Visiting Students in North Carolina
USGS scientists answer questions about climate change gathered from middle and high school students in Mt. Airy, North Carolina.
Climate Connections: Questions from North and South Carolina
USGS scientists answer four questions about climate change gathered from citizens in North and South Carolina.
Climate Connections: Questions from Puerto Rico
USGS scientists answer four questions about climate change gathered from citizens in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
USGS News and Information on El Niño
The term El Niño refers to a warm ocean current that typically appears around December and lasts for several months, but may persist into May or June. This Web site gives a general overview of the science of El Niño, and provides links to resources that discuss the impact of El Niño on floods, landslides, coastal hazards, and climate along with other information.
Investigating Climate Change of Western North America
A USGS fact sheet that discusses how the California Current in the Pacific Ocean drives the climate of the western United States.
Geologic Carbon Sequestration
Looking for a simple explanation of geologic carbon sequestration? This two-page fact sheet discusses the major concepts and provides an excellent diagram.
Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change
Carbon sequestration is a process by which CO2 is removed from the atmosphere or diverted from emission sources and stored in the ocean, vegetation, soils, and geologic formations. Learn the basics in this four-page fact sheet.
1997 Workshop on Climate Variability and Change
A series of USGS articles and Web sites related to climate change that were compiled for a 1997 workshop on effects of climate variability, long-term climate change, and land-use change in the rapidly-growing southwestern United States.
Melting Glaciers: Before and After Photographs
The USGS Repeat Photography Project for Glacier National Park pairs historic images of glaciers with striking contemporary photos to give global warming a face and make climate change a relevant issue.
Declassified Images of Arctic Seas
Images derived from classified materials are now available to the public through the USGS Global Fiducials Library to support environmental analysis of global climate-related science. The collection features more than 700 Arctic images that document changes in the extent of Arctic seas.
Greenhouse Gases Classroom Activity
Students observe and contrast thermal properties of three major greenhouse changes over time for dry air, water saturated air, carbon dioxide, and methane. classroom activities cost items

Ecosystems
USGS Global Ecosystems
An effort to classify and map global ecosystems in a standardized, robust, and practical manner at scales appropriate for on-the-ground management. Click on the "Products" tab and select "Publications" to browse a series of maps published in 2009-2010.
Global Ecosystems Data Viewer
Perform customized viewing, data selection, and download for several ecosystems data layers. Free registration is required.
Terrestrial Ecosystems Map of the Conterminous United States
The USGS, with support from NatureServe, has modeled the potential distribution of 419 terrestrial ecosystems for the conterminous United States using a comprehensive biophysical stratification approach that identifies distinct biophysical environments and associates them with known vegetation distributions. Download a PDF of this 2010 publication or go to the Data Viewer to download data.
USGS Terrestrial, Freshwater, and Marine Ecosystems Program
Research highlights, featured publications, and links to ecosystem topics. Major research components of the program include Global Change, Fire, Wetlands, Sagebrush/Sage Steppe, Corals, and Outer Continental Shelf.
Western Mountain Initiative: Predicting Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change
Scientists from the USGS, the U.S. Forest Service, and universities are studying climate change and ecological interactions to better understand and predict likely outcomes in the mountainous American West.
USGS Priority Ecosystem Science
The mission of Priority Ecosystem Science is to provide science in support of adaptive management of ecosystems that have near-term societal concern and significant long-term societal value. Studies are designed to serve local ecosystem management needs and to provide knowledge and approaches transferable to similar ecosystems across the Nation.
The Road Indicator Project
A dataset developed to describe the extent and configuration of the spaces between roads in the United States.
Delta Research And Global Observation Network (DRAGON)
An international partnership for sharing data on the great deltas and rivers of the world and to develop comparative models and visualization tools to facilitate ecological forecasting regarding climate change and development.
National Wetlands Research Center/Ecosystems
Research on wetland losses, restoration, and management, with an emphasis on Gulf Coast habitats.
Tidal Marsh Monitoring
An online handbook for conducting "on the ground" tidal marsh restoration monitoring. Offers information on monitoring design, methods, SOPs, datasheets, database templates, and a restoration forum.
USGS Chesapeake Bay Activities
The mission of USGS Chesapeake Bay studies is to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Bay ecosystem.
The Platte River Program
Nine endangered species use the central Platte River Valley for habitat, including the whooping crane, piping plover, and least tern. Changes in water and land use have transformed the river channel and altered adjacent wet meadows. Developing successful strategies to sustain or rehabilitate the riparian ecosystem of the central Platte River requires an understanding of the linkages between hydrology, river morphology, biological communities, and ecosystem processes.
San Francisco Bay and Delta
The vast San Francisco Bay and Delta region of California has undergone rapid, large-scale, and permanent changes driven by a growing population. The consequent land use changes have resulted in the loss of wetlands, alteration of freshwater inflows, contamination of water, sediments and biota, and declines of fish and wildlife species.
South Florida Integrated Science
Information access in support of research, decision making, and resource management for the South Florida ecosystem restoration effort.
Hydrology and Ecology of Freshwater Wetlands in Central Florida -- A Primer
Wetlands are a dominant landscape feature in Florida; in 1996, an estimated 11.4 million acres of wetlands occupied 29 percent of the area of the State. Wetlands represent a greater percentage of the land surface in Florida than in any other state in the conterminous United States. Learn about Florida's wetlands in this 138 page Circular, published in 2010.
Mojave Desert
The Mojave Desert provides critical habitat for many sensitive animal and plant species, but rapid human population growth has resulted in habitat loss, degradation of air quality, and depletion of water resources. Successful land management of the Mojave depends on the availability and application of scientific information regarding biological and physical resources.
Baltimore Ecosystem Study
The USGS is a partner in the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), which conducts research on metropolitan Baltimore as an ecological system. The program integrates biological, physical, and social sciences in order to understand how Baltimore's ecosystems change over time.
Terrestrial Ecosystems: Isobioclimates of the Conterminous United States
This USGS map is an excellent classroom tool for the study of terrestrial ecosystems. Two other useful Terrestrial Ecosystem maps have also been published: Land Surface Forms of the Conterminous United States and Topographic Moisture Potential of the Conterminous United States. All three maps can be downloaded in PDF format or paper copies can be ordered from the USGS Store.
 

Geography



Maps and Geospatial Data
Topographic Map Resources for Teachers
An overall summary of useful USGS resources for working with topographic maps: where to get them; how to interpret them; how to use them; explanations of coordinates, datums, and projections; and lessons for the classroom. Also available as a 2-page PDF file.
Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Creation and Analysis
Create a DEM using interpolated elevations from a topographic map and GIS software.
Exploring Africa's Physical and Cultural Geography Using GIS
Use either ArcView or ArcGIS software to explore the geography of Africa in seven activities with detailed instructions.
27 Ideas for Teaching with Topographic Maps
Classroom activities that teach about maps and cartography. Some of the activities can be completed using GIS software.
Map Mysteries
Sample questions to use with USGS topographic and thematic maps as starting points to uncover mysteries about the cultural and physical geography of the Earth.
The National Map
Download free, seamless orthoimagery, elevation, geographic names, hydrography, boundaries, transportation, structures, and land cover for the entire U.S. Offers interoperability with ArcGIS and viewers like Google Earth, popular GIS tools, and other advanced features. New users might benefit from reading a fact sheet before starting.   Icon for lab resources
Data.gov
Geospatial generated by the Executive Branch of the Federal Government.   Icon for lab resources
USGS Education Map Catalog
Click on "Education Products" to browse and purchase USGS maps that are popular with educators.   Icon for lab resources  Icon for cost of supplies
Free Digital USGS Topographic Map Quadrangles
Click on "Map Locator" to download free USGS topographic map quadrangles in georeferenced PDF (GeoPDF) format. These files were created using high-resolution scans and average 10-17 megabytes in size. Use the same "Map Locator" link to download the next generation, all digital "US Topo" maps (15-20 megabytes in size). US Topo maps are currently only available for a limited number of states, but more are constantly added.
Topographic Map Symbols
An explanation of almost every symbol that is likely to be encountered on a topographic map.
USGS Resources for Topographic Maps
A comprehensive list of USGS resources for learning about and using topographic maps.   Icon for lab resources
How to Use a Compass with a USGS Topographic Map
Learn to navigate using a topographic map and a compass.
Topographic Salad Tray Model
An inexpensive and easy way to create a three-dimensional model using topographic map contours.
Topographic Change
A national inventory of significant topographic changes based on seamless elevation data and land cover data. Most topographic changes result from surface mining, road construction, urban development, dam construction, and landfills.
Map Projections: A Working Manual
Although it was published in 1987, this is the most frequently downloaded publication in the USGS Publication Warehouse. Chapters cover general concepts of map projections and discuss the appearance, usage, history, and equations for over 20 projections.
Map Projections
The online version of a very popular USGS poster that briefly summarizes and compares 18 popular map projection. A paper version of the poster is available for free through the USGS Store ($5 handling fee), which also has a downloadable PDF. Professionals and academics use the poster as a handy reference.
Map Projections (Open-File Report)
Written for educators in 1991, this publication was created with what was, at that time, state of the art computer graphics. The images are low-resolution by today's standards, but the contents are still good.
Map Image Re-Projection Software
User's guide to mapIMG 3, free USGS software for raster map projection transformation. A link to the software download is at the bottom of the page.
USGS Geographic Names Information System (GNIS)
GNIS contains information for almost 2 million physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and its territories. Query the database to find individual features and their corresponding coordinates. Search results include links to on-line air photos and topographic maps containing the feature. GNIS is also a layer of The National Map (above).   Icon for lab resources

Satellite Imagery and Remote Sensing
Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS)
EROS is the repository and source for USGS satellite imagery, aerial photography, and many digital data products. EROS is recognized for its expertise in developing new ways to analyze, visualize, and utilize remotely sensed land data for studying diverse aspects of Earth’s terrestrial environment.
Global Visualization Viewer (GloVis) - Free USGS Remote Sensing Data
Download free Landsat (1-7), MODIS, EO-1, and Terra ASTER satellite images as well as aerial photography. GloVis is a user-friendly global viewer that allows convenient preview of images and scene mosaics -- the user can select any area of interest and immediately view all available browse images for the specified location. All products are free except for high resolution scans of aerial photography. GloVis has some satellite imagery that is not available through the more powerful Earth Explorer viewer (below).   Icon for lab resources
Earth Explorer - Free USGS Remote Sensing Data
Download digital USGS data including satellite imagery, digital aerial photos, and other data. All products are free except for high resolution scans of aerial photography. Earth Explorer has more powerful search capabilities than the user-friendly GloVis (above).
TerraLook
Create a collection of georeferenced JPEG satellite images that can be visually interpreted and compared without the need for complicated software. All downloads are free. TerraLook is a joint USGS/NASA project that anyone can use to see changes in the Earth over time.
Satellite Image Gallery
A special collection of satellite images that record beautiful sights, events of historic significance, and scenes that stir the imagination. Includes the spectacular 'Earth as Art' collections and satellite mosaics of each state. The Tri-Decadal Global Landsat Orthorectified States collection combines satellite data with elevation data to produce spectacular images of each individual state. All images can be downloaded for free as high-resolution JPEG files. Paper copies of all these images can also be purchased through the USGS Store.
Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA)
LIMA brings the coldest continent on Earth alive in greater detail than ever before through this virtually cloudless, seamless, and high resolution satellite view of Antarctica. Zoom in on stunning detail with this Natural-Color, Pan-Sharpened image. The mosaic and all of the LIMA products can be downloaded at no charge.
USGS Center for LIDAR Information Coordination and Knowledge (CLICK)
CLICK facilitates data access, user coordination, and education of Light Detecting And Ranging (LIDAR) remote sensing for scientific needs. Use CLICK to determine if publically-available LIDAR exists in your area of interest. These are point cloud downloads only; no processing or bare earth filtering has been performed.
EarthNow! Landsat image Viewer
View mesmerizing, near-real-time imagery received from the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites as they pass over the United States.
Earthshots: Satellite Images of Environmental Change
Earthshots is a collection of before-and-after Landsat images (1972-present), showing recent environmental events and introducing the concept of remote sensing. Some changes are due to natural causes and some are due to human causes. Each set of images includes a detailed description, photographs and maps, a list of references, and a question/answer. Images are best used on-line.   Icon for lab resources
A Descriptive Catalog of Selected Aerial Photographs of Geologic Features in the United States
This 1968 publication (in PDF format) is not up to modern imagery standards, but it includes a latitude, longitude, and description for each feature that could be used to locate more recent images.

Purchase USGS Paper Maps and Earth As Art Images
USGS Store
A quick and easy way to find and order printed USGS products: paper maps, Earth as Art satellite images, satellite mosaics of all states, books, and other publications. Recreation passes are also sold here. Previews are available for most of the popular products. Click on "Education Products" to browse maps and print publications that are popular with educators. Click on "Map Locator" to download free digital topographic maps.   Icon for lab resources  Icon for cost of supplies

Land Use History and Changing Landscapes
Rates, Trend, Causes, and Consequences of Urban Land-Use Change in the United States
This 2006 report is a collection of 20 papers on urban land use change and its environmental consequences.
Land Use History of North America
Describes the historical and on-going changes in land use and land cover for several regions around the U.S.
USGS Urban Dynamics Research Program
Describes a project that analyzes land use change in urban environments in order to provide a historical perspective of land use change and an assessment of the spatial patterns, rates, correlation, trends, and impacts of that change. Includes links to computer animations of urban growth in the San Francisco Bay Area and the Baltimore-Washington Area.
Urban Growth in American Cities (Circular 1252)
An online publication that illustrates the spatial history of urban growth in sixteen areas around the U.S. and the corresponding land use change. Images can be downloaded as GIF files.
 

Geology



Astronomy and Astrogeology
USGS Astrogeology Science Center
Looking for information on the moon, Mars, or impact craters? The Flagstaff Science Center is home to USGS astrogeology research. Take a special look at the Education and Outreach portion of the site for information, lesson plans, and activities that are "out of this world!"
Map-a-Planet
Explore global imagery of the planets and satellites from a variety of missions in an easy-to-use Web interface. Customize and download your own free image maps of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and other planets and moons. Select global mosaic products and have them map projected, clipped to extents, run algebra functions against the image bands and download the final image in your choice of file formats.
Maps from the Astrogeology program
A prime activity of the USGS Astrogeology program is the systematic mapping of the stratigraphy and structure of the Moon, Mars, Venus, Mercury, and the moons of the outer planets. This site is an index of those maps, covering both global and regional areas. Many can be downloaded for free in PDF format. To purchase printed maps, browse the available selection at the USGS Store.   Icon for lab resources
USGS Planetary GIS Web Server (PIGWAD)
A user-friendly interface that supports GIS tools for analyses of planetary data. PIGWAD includes planetary GIS databases consisting of digital geologic maps, feature maps, topography, and remote-sensing data. All downloads are free. Also links to the Global GIS database for Earth.
Planetary Image Locator Tool (PILOT)
A web-based tool for access to NASA spacecraft images of the Moon and Mars. PILOT allows users to perform detailed searches to explore data sets archived from NASA space missions.
Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature
Maintained by the USGS in cooperation with NASA and the International Astronomical Union (IAU). Download shapefiles or KML files of all named features for each planet and moon.
Regional Planetary Image Facility
The USGS was heavily involved in planning and practicing for the Apollo Moon missions. Historical videos, photographs, and online exhibits of this fascinating time are archived here. There is also a database of about 900 published lunar and planetary paper maps of the I-Map and SIM-map series.

Plate Tectonics
This Dynamic Earth: the Story of Plate Tectonics
"This Dynamic Earth" is one of the most recommended and referenced primers on plate tectonics. Topics include a history of the theory, scientific developments that spurred its development, the mechanics of plate motions, and the relationship of hotspots to plate tectonic theory. A companion best-selling map, "This Dynamic Planet", is also available online or in print.   Icon for lab resources  Icon for cost of supplies
This Dynamic Planet
Plate tectonics are fully illustrated by this best-selling world map (a companion to "This Dynamic Earth: the Story of Plate Tectonics") showing the locations of plate boundaries, volcanoes, earthquakes, and impact craters. Detailed ocean floor bathymetry and discussions of fundamental components are also featured. A paper version is available for purchase or the map can be downloaded free in PDF format.   Icon for lab resources  Icon for cost of supplies
Excerpts from USGS Volcano Publications
This resource page has excerpts from USGS publications that relate to plate tectonics and volcanoes. Topics include the geology behind the Cascade Range volcanoes, the East Africa Rift, the Iceland volcanic rift, the Juan De Fuca Ridge and Juan de Fuca Subduction Zone, the Marianas Trench, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, South America, and the Hawaiian and Yellowstone "hot spots."   Icon for lab resources
The Interior of the Earth
A brief, introductory guide to what is known about the interior of our planet.

Geologic Maps
Geologic Maps and Mapping
Geologic maps describe the rocks and soils at the surface, provide information about what rocks lie at depth, describe the ages of rocks and soils, and show where features such as earthquake faults and landslides lie. Geologic maps are made by studying the rocks and materials exposed at the surface and depicting information about those rocks on a map. This resource page is particularly useful to help students understand geologic maps of areas near where they live or study.
National Geologic Map Database
This exhaustive database provides bibliographic access to many thousands of geologic, geophysical, and other kinds of maps available in USGS publications, Web sites, popular science journals, and more.   Icon for lab resources
Tapestry of Time and Terrain
Shaded relief and geology are combined on this interactive map of the 48 conterminous states. It is a useful resource for discussing physiographic provinces and for viewing the location of rocks deposited during different geologic time periods. A paper wall-size version (one of the most eye-catching maps produced by the USGS) is available for purchase through the USGS Store.   Icon for lab resources  Icon for cost of supplies
The North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain
The North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain is woven from a geologic map and a shaded relief image. This digital combination reveals the geologic history of North America through the interrelation of rock type, topography and time. Regional surface processes as well as continent-scale tectonic events are exposed in the three dimensions of space and the fourth dimension, geologic time. Download PDF files or purchase a paper copy from the USGS Store.    Icon for lab resources  Icon for cost of supplies
Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains
Created for use in high school and college classrooms, this double-sided USGS map consists of a geologic map, photographs of geologic features, diagrams of plate movement, and more. The map is a companion to the DVD and Teachers Guide The Southern Appalachians, a Changing World and the brochure Birth of the Mountains.
Geologic Map of North Cascades
A beautiful new geologic map of the North Cascade range east of Puget Sound in Washington state covers the Glacier Peak and Mount Baker volcanoes and North Cascade National Park. This online publication includes a nontechnical pamphlet with an extensive glossary (a technical pamphlet is also available) and over 100 photographs of the geology and landscape.

Rocks and Minerals
Short Course Introduction to Quantitative Mineral-resource Assessments
A short course developed to assist policymakers in evaluating the consequences of alternative courses of action with respect to land use and mineral-resource development.
Schoolyard Geology
Stuck in the city? Can't afford to take a field trip? These structured activities use man-made features to demonstrate geologic principles.
USGS Mineral Resources Program
The USGS Mineral Resources Program provides current, impartial information on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources.  This includes information about mineral commodities, regional mineral resources, crustal imaging, and minerals information.
Minerals Statistics and Information
This Web site assembles statistics and information about the worldwide supply of, demand for, and flow of minerals and materials essential to the U.S. economy, the national security, and protection of the environment.
Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS)
MRDS is an international data base of mineral site records with related geologic, commodity, and deposit information. Access it through a GIS interface or a text-based interface.
Historic Events in Minerals and Materials
A review of significant changes in industries that consume metals and industrial minerals. This report includes a timeline showing major achievements in mineral production and events that affected the U.S. mineral industry.
From Projectile Points to Microprocessors--The Influence of Some Industrial Minerals
A 2007 publication that examines the occurrence and practical uses of nine important industrial minerals - constituting just a few of the more than 50 industrial minerals that shape human culture.
Mineral Deposit Models
Publications by the USGS on mineral deposit models converted to digital files that can be downloaded.
The Living Rock: The Earth's Continental Crust
A 1 hour 45 minute film published in 1995 that is targeted to the High School grade level. This beautiful film provides a global tour of geologic processes through the eyes of several USGS scientists.

Geochemistry
Quality Assurance and Quality Control of Geochemical Data: A Primer for the Research Scientist
Provides basic information and guidance about developing QA/QC protocols for geochemical studies.
Inorganic Chemical Analysis of Environmental Materials--A Lecture Series
Compilation of a series of USGS lectures given to graduate level students. Emphasizes the thought processes that should be used when submitting samples for analyses.

Soils
What's in My Soil? Classroom Activity
Students separate, examine and identify the major components of soil to better understand how these
components give soil its unique physical characteristics. classroom activities cost items
Graded Bedding Classroom Activity
Students are introduced to the concept of graded bedding, in which particles are sorted by size as they settle out of suspension. Students will discover that water is a good medium to separate and sort particles, and that particles have different behaviors in water and air. classroom activities cost items

Fossils and Earth History
Education Resources for Paleontology
Provides links to paleontological resources available from the USGS and elsewhere for teachers, students, scientists, and others who are interested in paleontology and related science disciplines.

Energy
Energy Resources
The USGS Energy Resources Program focuses on understanding processes critical to the formation of geologically based energy resources. Research programs conduct assessments of those resources and study the impact of energy resource occurrence and/or production and use on both environmental and human health.

Coastal Environments
USGS Coastal & Marine Geology Program
Provides current information on a variety of research topics including tsunamis generated by submarine earthquakes and landslides, El Niño, sea level change, coastal erosion, corals, pollution, and much more. The Web site has links to CMGP field centers in Santa Cruz/Menlo Park, California, St. Petersburg, Florida, and Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
Maps of America's Submerged Lands
State-of-the-art digital multibeam systems are now used to systematically map the seafloor and collect data such as bathymetry and backscatter. This site is a portal to published USGS maps, reports, and digital data that depict the bathymetry, surficial geology, and/or subsurface structure of selected submerged U.S. areas. Some lakes are included. NOAA is also a good source for bathymetric data.
Coastal and Marine Geology Internet Map Server and GIS Data
A portal to digital maps and georeferenced data for coastal and marine areas of the U.S.
Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB)
MRIB is a digital publication library designed to classify, integrate, and facilitate access to scientific information about the oceans and the adjacent parts of the atmosphere and solid Earth. First-time users might benefit from reviewing a Fact Sheet about MRIB.
Coasts in Crisis
This 1990 publication describes types of coasts (rocky shores, sandy beaches, coastal wetlands, and coral reefs). It also provides discussion about processes that affect beaches and coastlines including waves, tides, weather, water-level changes, coastal vegetation, and human impacts of beach sediments and processes.
Sound Waves: Coastal and Marine Research News
Explore non-technical articles about interesting discoveries and research in coastal and marine science. Sound Waves is a monthly newsletter with a rich archive of stories collected since 1999. Sign up to receive monthly email updates!
Coastal Change Hazards: Hurricanes and Extreme Storms
Research focusing on understanding the magnitude and variability of the impacts of hurricanes and extreme storms on the sandy beaches of the United States.
USGS Responds to Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill
Gateway to all USGS information and data related to the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
USGS Information on El Niño
is a natural but largely unpredictable condition that results from complex interplay among clouds and storms, regional winds, oceanic temperatures, and ocean currents along the equatorial Pacific. Explore the impacts of El Niño including floods, landslides, climate changes, and coastal hazards.
National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project
Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. The USGS is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous U.S. and parts of Alaska and Hawaii.
USGS Pacific Coral Reefs Web Site
Explore the fascinating undersea world of coral reefs, primarily in Hawaii and Guam. Learn how the USGS maps, monitors, and models coral reefs so the Nation can better understand, protect, and preserve them.
Maps of America's Submerged Lands
Use this portal to access USGS maps, reports, and digital data that depict the bathymetry, surficial geology, and/or subsurface structure of submerged areas (oceans and lakes).

Natural Hazards
Natural Hazards Gateway
Provides many links and resources to USGS information related to earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanoes, and wildfires.   Icon for lab resources
USGS Online Hazard Lectures
A large percentage of online lectures presented by the USGS are related to hazards--earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and tsunamis. All of the lectures in this collection are highly appropriate for a college-level audience. For more technical lectures, follow the links at the top of the page for the Earthquake Science Center and Volcano Science Center seminars.
USGS Emergency Operations Portal and the Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS)
Explore critical pre- and post-disaster images and datasets online for immediate viewing and downloading. The USGS provides these images for use in disaster preparations, rescue and relief operations, damage assessments, and reconstruction efforts. For a quick introduction to HDDS, read a one-page fact sheet.
USGS Natural Hazards Support System (NHSS)
Monitor and analyze natural hazards events as they are occurring anywhere on the earth through NHSS. Dynamic links connect to additional information. Viewer resolution is designed for a national or global scale.

Earthquakes
USGS Earthquake Hazards Program
The best starting point for browsing information on earthquake data, hazards, preparedness, monitoring, and research. Click on the "Learn" tab to access extensive educational materials and FAQs. The regional office links near the bottom of the page lead to site-specific information. The links in the blue section at the bottom of the page are an excellent starting point for advanced features like analysis tools and software.   Icon for classroom activities  Icon for lab resources
National Seismic Hazard Maps
National maps of ground motion for various probability levels.   Icon for lab resources
Earthquake Catalogs
Searchable databases and downloadable earthquake and seismic data. Data is available in multiple formats.
Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States
This Web site contains information on faults and associated folds in the United States that are believed to be sources of M>6 earthquakes during the Quaternary (the past 1,600,000 years). Maps of these geologic structures are linked to detailed descriptions and references.   Icon for lab resources
Quaternary Faults Web Mapping Application
Use this interactive map to find information about individual Quaternary faults in the United States. Click on a fault to get its name, age, slip rate, slip sense, and a data link.
Google Earth/KML Files
KML files for Quaternary faults in the U.S., ShakeMaps, and real time earthquakes. Additional files provide detailed looks at specific faults in California.
Earthquake Notification Service (ENS)
A free service that sends automated notification e-mails when earthquakes happen in your area. Customize ENS to only deliver messages for certain areas, at specified times, and to multiple addresses. ENS can even send text notifications to your cell phone.
PAGER - Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response
The PAGER system provides estimates of the number of people and the names of cities exposed to severe shaking following significant earthquakes worldwide.
Earthquake Publications
A selected subset of earthquake-related USGS publications including Fact Sheets, maps, multimedia, Professional Papers, and Open-File Reports.   Icon for lab resources  Icon for cost of supplies
A Practical Guide to Pacific Northwest Earthquakes
This technology-enabled learning (TEL) course is divided into 2 lessons and takes 90 minutes to complete. Includes a scientific, but practical overview and covers earthquake preparedness resources. Created 2012.
The Great Alaska Earthquake and Tsunami of March 27, 1964
Explore numerous resources created for the 50th anniversary of the second largest earthquake ever recorded and the tsunami that it created. Watch videos, animations, archival film, and a public lecture; read short fact sheets as well as historic publications; and delve into historical photographs. An interactive "story map" of 1964 Anchorage is an especially good way to engage students of any age.
The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake:  100 Years Later
A list of links to USGS science and products about the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake. Includes amazing simulations of ground shaking, earthquake intensity maps, a virtual tour of the San Francisco Bay Area faults, historic photographs, an earthquake survival handbook for the San Francisco Bay region, and much, much more.   Icon for teaching module  Icon for classroom activities  Icon for lab resources
The San Andreas Fault System, California
This classic 1990 compilation of scientific papers on the San Andreas fault, is a technical and exhaustive resource of information about the fault and is an essential companion to all newly published research about the fault system. The book is available for download or to purchase.
The San Andreas Fault In The San Francisco Bay Area, California: A Geology Field Trip Guidebook To Selected Stops On Public Lands
A field guide with descriptions of places the public can go to view the San Andreas Fault. Introductory materials include an overview of the San Andreas Fault System, geology, landscape features, and plant communities that reveal information about the underlying geology.
San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD)
The SAFOD project is a deep borehole experiment that penetrates the San Andreas Fault in one of the most predictively active segments of the San Andreas Fault. The USGS and partners have installed an extensive network of seismic instrumentation along the fault near the Parkfield, California.
The Hayward Fault
Northern California's Hayward fault is a tectonic time bomb, due anytime for another magnitude 6.8 to 7.0 earthquake that could cause hundreds of deaths, leave thousands homeless, and devastate the region's economy. Browse the links to learn about current science since the 1868 Hayward fault earthquake.
The ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario
The question is not if but when southern California will be hit by a major earthquake - one so damaging that it will permanently change lives and livelihoods in the region. This 16-page Circular published in 2008 identifies the physical, social, and economic consequences of a theoretical magnitude 7.8 earthquake in southern California.
Earthquakes in the Central and Eastern U.S.
Links to publications and maps related to earthquakes in the central and eastern U.S., with an emphasis on the New Madrid seismic zone.
Earthquakes in the Central United States—1699-2002
More than 800 earthquakes are shown on this downloadable map detailing seismic activity in the most active region of the central United States.
Earthquake Hazard in the New Madrid Seismic Zone
This USGS fact sheet summarizes recent developments related to seismic activity in the central Mississippi River Valley. Learn more at the USGS Web site for the New Madrid Seismic Zone.
World Earthquake Information
Links to seismicity maps and related information that is available for individual countries. Go to World Seismicity Maps for maps showing significant earthquakes since 1900 over large regions.
Earthquake Summary Posters
View and download posters that provide detailed information and a brief discussion about large earthquakes soon after they occur. Images include the epicentral area, plate tectonic environment, earthquake history, and generalized seismic hazard of the region. The posters serve as a one-stop-shop for information about large earthquakes that have occurred since 2002.
Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2007
Download a map that illustrates over 100 years of global seismicity in the context of plate tectonics. This map provides a slightly different perspective from This Dynamic Planet, which is targeted to educators.
Seismicity of the Aleutian Arc 1900-2007
Download a map showing the details of seismicity on the Aleutian Arc, which are not visible on the above global map.

Tsunamis
Tsunamis & Earthquakes
An exhaustive list of USGS tsunami links including animations of actual and hypothetical tsunamis.
Surviving a Tsunami-Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan
This on-line 1999 publication describes the causes and impacts of large tsunamis, with examples from around the Pacific Rim.
Tsunami Videos and Online Lectures
Watch tsunami preparedness videos made in 2009 and 2010 for locations along the Pacific coast. Also view public lectures about the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.
Can It Happen Here?
Could a tsunami such as the one that affected the Indian Ocean on December, 26, 2004 happen in the United States? This site discusses likely tsunami scenarios for the entire U.S. coastline.
The Orphan Tsunami of 1700 - Japanese Clues to a Parent Earthquake in North America
In 1700, a mysterious tsunami flooded fields and washed away houses in Japan. Yet no one in Japan felt an earthquake. Follow along with scientists as they discover clues suggesting that the tsunami originated from a large earthquake in the Cascadia region of North America.

Landslides
The Landslide Handbook—A Guide to Understanding Landslides
What is a landslide? Where do they occur? What causes them? How are they monitored? How can they be prevented? What safety measures can you follow if you live near steep hills? All these questions are answered in this 129-page publication. Written for a general audience, it is heavily illustrated with diagrams and photographs taken at location around the globe.
National Landslide Overview Map of the United States
An interactive map showing landslide and flood hazard areas of the United States.
Maps of Holocene Debris Flows in the Conterminous United States
This 1999 publications shows the locations of 6,600 debris flows and areas of possible future debris flows in the conterminous U.S.
Riding the Storm
A catastrophic 1982 rainstorm triggered 18,000 landslides in the San Francisco Bay Area. In this online video, learn what USGS scientists have discovered in the last two decades about landslide dynamics and which slopes are most susceptible to sliding.

Volcanoes
Volcano Hazards Program The best starting point for current information about volcano activity, volcano hazards, and learning materials. For historical information about individual volcanoes, go to the Web sites listed below for the Volcano Observatories.
Cascades Volcano Observatory
The best starting point for historical information and detailed research on volcanoes in the western part of the conterminous U.S. and for information about volcanoes in other countries. This site has resources and links to almost every conceivable concept related to volcanoes.   Icon for classroom activities  Icon for lab resources
Alaska Volcano Observatory
The AVO Web site contains current information about Alaska's volcanoes, FAQs, images, regional maps, and more.   Icon for lab resources
Hawaii Volcano Observatory
Comprehensive information about Hawaii's active volcanoes with many graphics and features.   Icon for lab resources
Long Valley Volcano Observatory
The Long Valley Volcanic System extends from Long Valley caldera in eastern California to Mono Lake. The most recent eruption was only 250 years ago. This Web site includes extensive scientific information plus an excellent virtual field guide.
Yellowstone Volcano Observatory
Find out about current seismicity, deformation, and geothermal monitoring in Yellowstone National Park.
Fire and Mud: Eruptions and Lahars of Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines
This history of the devastating 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo highlights the new science that was learned at the time and the challenges that lie ahead to prevent and/or mitigate another disaster.
Geology in Action
Watch the growth of the lava dome in the Mount St. Helens crater from 2004-2008 in this time-lapse movie. The dome grew at an average rate of 8 cubic yards per minute!
Mount St. Helens Lidar
Download and print a spectacular Digital Elevation model (DEM) of Mount St. Helens created using lidar. Learn more about how lidar is used to create Digital Elevation Models here, and find more USGS lidar data at the Center for LIDAR Information Coordination and Knowledge (CLICK).

Wildfires
GeoMAC Wildland Fire Support
The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group (GeoMAC) is an internet-based mapping application designed for fire managers (and the public) to access online maps of current fire locations and perimeters in the conterminous 48 States and Alaska.
Fire Ecology Research
The portal page to fire ecology research in Sierra Nevada forests, California shrublands, Mojave and Sonoran deserts, and the Great Basin.
 

Water


Water Resources of the United States
The main portal to USGS Water Resources Program provides links to real-time data for surface water, groundwater, and water quality information for all states. To get a broad spectrum of information about specific locations or areas, use the "Water Science by State" function near the bottom of the page. Be sure to also visit the Water Education page with its exhaustive list of resources.
Water Resources Data
The National Water System Web Site is a comprehensive source of real-time water data for the nation (surface water, groundwater, and water quality). Real-time stream flow data is collected from over 8,000 on-line stations throughout the U.S. A "Water Use" Web site has maps and searchable data by county and watershed. On-line databases provide data and reports on acid rain, atmospheric deposition and precipitation chemistry, and information about the transport of sediments and contaminants in streams.   Icon for lab resources
Science in Your Watershed
A good starting point for comprehensive water information about specific watersheds.   Icon for lab resources
Chemical and Pathogenic Contaminant Exposure by Drinking Water
How safe is your water? Scientific data and information on the occurrence, fate, and transport of contaminants in water, assessments of drinking water sources, and the vulnerability of water supplies to contamination.
On-Demand Surface-Water Training
Take a free, Web-based or CD-based "class" on surface water techniques at your own pace. Each class covers a topic such as measuring discharge, discharge-stage relations, safety, sediment sampling, and more. Most classes are narrated and might include exercises, tests, PowerPoint presentations, MPEG movies, virtual tours, or other elements. For a quick review of the classes, see the fact sheet Surface-Water Techniques: On Demand Training Opportunities.
Water Availability for the Western United States--Key Scientific Challenges
In the Western United States, the availability of water has become a serious concern for many communities. This report reviews the quality, availability, use, and sustainability of both ground water and surface water in the western U.S.
How does a U.S. Geological Survey Streamgage Work?
In order to understand the health of our nation's rivers and streams, USGS scientists monitor the information provided from more than 9,000 streamgages nationwide. Learn how a streamgage works in this two-page fact sheet.
Estimated Use of Water in the United States
In 2005, Americans used 410 billion gallons of water per day, slightly less than in 2000. The declines are attributed to more efficient irrigation systems and alternative technologies at power plants. Despite a thirty percent population increase during the past twenty-five years, overall water use has remained fairly stable. A podcast is also available.

Groundwater
USGS Groundwater Information Pages
The best starting point for groundwater information and basics. Follow links for data, groundwater/surface-water interactions, karst, artificial recharge, land subsidence, regional ground water studies, modeling software, and publications.
Aquifer Basics
An underground layer of permeable rock, sediment, or soil that yields water is called an aquifer. This site describes different kinds of aquifers and where they are located.
Basic Ground-water Hydrology
Written in 1983, this 84-page publication was intended to serve as a textbook for public decision-makers in need of an introduction to groundwater basics. Copious diagrams are included.
Introduction to Ground-Water Hydraulics: A Programed Text for Self-Instruction
A 1976 publication with sections on general concepts, Darcy's law, groundwater storage, nonequilibrium flow, and finite-difference methods.
Ground Water Atlas of the United States
Learn about the ground-water resources of regional areas that collectively cover the U.S. and its territories. Text and maps are used to describe the climate, physiography, geology, land use, major aquifers, and ground-water withdrawals for each region.
Sustainability of Ground-Water Resources (USGS Circular 1186)
Ground water is one of the Nation's provides about 40 percent of the public water supply in the United States. This Web site provides information and discussion about one or our nation's most precious resource, our groundwater supply.
Ground-Water Availability in the United States
This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation.
Ground Water and Surface Water - A Single Resource (USGS Circular 1139)
This publication includes a chapter on the hydrologic cycle, and illustrates the interactions of groundwater and surface water. The report discusses issues related to water supply, water quality, and degradation of aquatic environments.
Sustainability of Ground-Water Resources
The availability of groundwater varies widely and only a part of the ground water can be recovered by wells in an economic manner without adverse consequences. Learn more in this 1995 publication. 76 pages.
Ground-Water-Level Monitoring and the Importance of Long-Term Water-Level Data
Learn about water data required to address the effects of aquifer development.
The Importance of Groundwater Studies
Why is the study of groundwater so important? Listen to an eight-minute CoreCast (podcast) that highlights six different USGS groundwater studies across the United States.
Groundwater Availability in the United States
This report examines what is known about the Nation's groundwater availability, including a description of major aquifers, water use, and changes in groundwater levels over time.

Floods
USGS Natural Hazards GatewayFloods
Gateway to USGS research on floods. Includes highlighted flood resources and recent USGS news related to floods. This is a good jumping-off point for general flood science.
Large Floods in the United States : Where they Happen and Why (Circular 1245)
A 13-page on-line publication that describes the geographic and climatic factors that influence the occurrence and impacts of large floods in the United States.
WaterWatch -- Current water resources conditions
Map of flood and high flow condition (United States). A Google Map version is also available.
FAQs about Floods
Frequently Asked Questions about floods.
 

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